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China's central bank conducts 100 bln yuan of reverse repos******
BEIJING, Oct. 21 (Xinhua) -- China's central bank Thursday injected 100 billion yuan (about 15.65 billion U.S. dollars) into the financial system via reverse repos.
The interest rate for the seven-day reverse repos was set at 2.2 percent, according to the People's Bank of China.
The move aims to offset the impacts of tax period and government bond issuance, and to keep liquidity in the banking system at a reasonably sufficient level, the central bank said.
A reverse repo is a process in which the central bank purchases securities from commercial banks through bidding, with an agreement to sell them back in the future. Enditem
Chinese shares rally Monday******
BEIJING, Nov. 22 (Xinhua) -- Chinese stocks closed higher on Monday, with the benchmark Shanghai Composite Index up 0.61 percent, at 3,582.08 points.。
The Shenzhen Component Index closed 1.41 percent higher at 14,960.66 points.。
The combined turnover of stocks covered by the two indices surpassed 1.2 trillion yuan (187.6 billion U.S. dollars), up from 1.11 trillion yuan on the previous trading day.。
Gainers outnumbered losers on the two bourses, with stocks in the telecommunications services, semi-conductor, and auto sectors leading the gains.。
Shares of real estate developers as well as beer and wine producers saw weak performances.。
The ChiNext Index, tracking China's NASDAQ-style board of growth enterprises, gained 2.54 percent to close at 3,505.73 points. Enditem。
Taliban criticizes US president's decision splitting Afghan assets******
A Taliban political spokesman has criticized US President Joe Biden's decision on splitting the frozen Afghan assets in the United States.
Mohammad Naeem, spokesman of the Taliban political office in Qatar, tweeted on Friday that "stealing the blocked funds of Afghan nation by the United States and its seizure is indicative of the lowest level of human and moral decay of a country and a nation."
On Friday, US President Biden signed an executive order to free US$7 billion out of more than US$9 billion frozen Afghan assets, splitting the money between humanitarian aid for cash-strapped Afghanistan and a fund for 9/11 victims.
"Failure and victory in human history and life is a normal practice. But the biggest and most shameful defeat is the military and moral defeat," Naeem added.
The Afghan economy following the Taliban's takeover in mid-August last year has suffered after the US freezing of assets belonging to the Afghan central bank, as well as a halt in funds by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
在发射升空三十天后，詹姆斯·韦伯望远镜（James Webb Telescope）于北美时间1月24日抵达距离地球150万公里的目的地——第二拉格朗日点。该点始终与地球和太阳保持在几乎同一直线上，使得仪器运转保持相对稳定。现在，地球上的控制人员将会在接下来的几个月对望远镜进行调节，为科学研究做准备。
James Webb telescope parked in observing position
Thirty days after it was launched, the James Webb telescope has arrived at the position in space where it will observe the Universe.
在发射升空三十天后，詹姆斯·韦伯望远镜（James Webb Telescope）已经在太空中抵达其将要观测宇宙的位置。
The Lagrange Point 2, as it's known, is a million miles (1.5 million km) from Earth on its nightside.
这个被称为拉格朗日L2点（Lagrange Point 2）的位置，在地球阴面之外100万英里（150万公里）处。
Webb was finally nudged into an orbit around this location thanks to a short, five-minute thruster burn.
Controllers back on Earth will now spend the coming months tuning the telescope to get it ready for science.
Key tasks include switching on the observatory's four instruments, and also focusing its mirrors - in particular, its 6.5m-wide segmented primary reflector.
"There's a pretty intensive effort to take all of those 18 segments from their current state and get them to act as one big mirror, and also to get the secondary mirror into its optimised condition," explained Charlie Atkinson, the chief engineer on Webb at Northrop Grumman, the American aerospace company that co-led the telescope's development with the US space agency (Nasa).
“将全部18个部分从现在的状态调节成一面大主镜，还要将副镜调到最佳状态，当中有颇为繁重的工作要做，”诺斯洛普·格鲁曼公司（Northrop Grumman）的韦伯望远镜首席工程师查理·阿特金森（Charlie Atkinson）解释说。这家美国航天企业与美国太空总署（NASA）联合主导这个望远镜的研发。
Webb, billed as the successor to the famous Hubble Space Telescope, was launched on 25 December by an Ariane-5 rocket from French Guiana.
韦伯被标榜为著名的哈勃太空望远镜（Hubble Space Telescope）继任者。它在12月25日在法属圭亚那用一枚亚利安5号运载火箭发射升空。
Its overarching goals are to take pictures of the very first stars to shine in the Universe and to probe far-off planets to see if they might be habitable.
Europe's Ariane-5 gave the new observatory a near-perfect trajectory and velocity to get it out to L2. Even so, two course correction burns were necessary, with the third on Monday tipping Webb into its planned parking position.
The Lagrange Point 2 is one of five gravitational "sweet-spots" around the Sun and Earth where satellites can hold their position with few orbital adjustments, thus conserving fuel.
The other advantage is that Webb will not experience at L2 the big swings in temperature and light endured by space telescopes positioned much closer to Earth.
This is vital for the mission. It's designed to view the cosmos in infrared light and must maintain therefore constant super-cold conditions for its hardware.
Infrared light has waves that are just longer than those of visible light. "Seeing" in the infrared will allow the telescope to, for example, look through dust to image stars that would otherwise be obscured.
Webb will now circle L2, keeping the Earth and the Sun in a near-straight line.
"L2 is pseudo-stable," said Jean-Paul Pinaud, who leads the Northrop engineers that keep Webb on track.
"The flight operations team is preparing routine station-keeping burns. They'll be doing those every 20 days or so with the trajectory calculations provided by our flight dynamics team. We'll set them up in a similar way, and then fire the thruster. But the burns will be quite small."
Hidden behind a big sunshield, Webb's optics and instruments will soon cool to about -230C (some sections of the telescope are already there). When that happens, controllers will switch on Webb's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) to take a picture of a test star to begin the process of aligning the big mirror.
"We know when we first focus on a star in space, we'll actually see 18 different spots of light because the 18 individual mirror segments won't be aligned," said Nasa instrument systems engineer Begoña Vila.
"But we'll adjust the mirrors to bring all the spots together to make a single star that's not aberrated and good for normal operations. It's a long process. It can take up to three months during commissioning, and we are ready to do that.”
Focusing involves driving small actuators, or motors, on the back of the 18 segments of the primary mirror to harmonise their curvature. The current misalignment, which is measured in millimetres, will be brought down to one measured in nanometres - a factor of a million improvement.
Similar adjustments will be applied to the 74cm-diameter secondary reflector which sits out in front of the primary mirror and is used to bounce light back towards the instruments.
So far, the Webb mission has not put a step wrong. The launch and journey out to L2 passed off without incident.
And even the complex business of unfolding the telescope after it came off the top of the Ariane rocket was made to look like the easiest of rehearsals.
"We were thrilled with the precision and success of all those deployments," said Kyle Hott, the mission systems engineering lead at Northrop.
"It's pretty incredible to think that it was all just a concept on paper decades ago, and now it's actually here, arriving at L2. Morale is high and we're so very excited."